Functional Glycomics homepage

Monosaccharide Key, Protocols and Annotation Guide

Annotation Guide

  • Assignments are based on compositions, taking into account biosynthetic considerations.
  • Alternative sequences are possible. In such cases ES-MS/MS will differentiate alternative possibilities.

  • Pictures and images are mostly home-made, but a number have been grabbed and modified from random websites - many thanks to the original authors.
    Complete Annotation Guide


  • Extraction of tissue
  • Reduction/carboxymethylation
  • Tryptic digestion
  • PNGaseF digestion
  • Sep-Pak separation of N-glycans O-glycopeptides/peptides
  • Reductive elimination of O-glycans
  • Dowex purification of O-glycans
  • Permethylation of N- and O-glycans
  • MALDI-TOF MS of permethylated N- and O-glycans Annotations

Complete protocols for both Cell and Tissue extraction

Monosaccharide Key

Symbol Nomenclature for Representation of Glycan Structure

(May 2004, Nomenclature Committee,
Consortium for Functional Glycomics)

Full documentation available at: